To assist teachers in teaching the Constitutional Convention of Professor Lloyd organizes the content of the Constitutional Convention in various ways on the website. Four lesson plans have been created to align with the content the Constitutional Convention as a Four Act Drama. Act Two portrays the Convention in crisis, in the sense that the delegates were at a stalemate.
Far from the wholly national republican Virginia Plan as amendedbeing accepted, as we might very well anticipate when the curtain fell at the end of Act Onethe delegates from Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, New York, and Mr. They argued that the Convention had exceeded the Congressional mandate because the Articles had in fact been scrapped rather than revised. Thus the Convention had violated the rule of law. These delegates knew their Locke and Montesquieu and they relied on their own political experience which was remarkably extensive: republican government could only exist in areas of small extent where the people kept close watch over their representatives.
A breakthrough occurs at the end of June when Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut suggests that we are neither wholly national nor wholly federal but a mixture of both. Several delegates echo this theme and the Convention decides to move beyond the exclusively national or federal paradigms. The Gerry Committee is created to explore the ramifications of this suggestion that the people be represented in the House and the states be represented in the Senate.
Teaching Six Big Ideas in the Constitution
Act Two description taken from: www. Lesson 2: Why did the delegates at the Constitutional Convention of compromise on a system of government that is partly federal and partly national? The Connecticut Compromise. According to Resolutions 3, 4, and 5, the general government shall have a bicameral legislative structure with neither branch elected by the states and with neither representing the states.
On June 11the delegates overwhelmingly agreed that the lower house should be based on population and elected by the people. By a vote, the delegates rejected a proposal by Roger Sherman that supported popular representation in the lower house and equal representation for the states in the upper branch.
On June 19the New Jersey Plan was defeated For the remainder of June, however, the delegates returned repeatedly to the compromise proposal of June And on June 29Ellsworth reintroduced the motion of June 11 : equal representation for the states in the upper house with proportional representation in the lower house.
For the first time, the case for the representation of the states was elevated from one of convenience to one of principle.
He trusted that on this middle ground a compromise would take place. On July 2the Ellsworth proposal was defeated on a tie vote: From July 5 to July 7the Gerry Committee defended equal representation for the states in the Senate and popular representation in the House. We were neither the same Nation nor different Nations. If no compromise should take place what will be the consequence?
The key to the Compromise was winning over such former wholly national supporters like Gerry and Mason. An often-overlooked component of the Compromise was the agreement that money bills would originate in the House and could not be amended in the Senate.Architect of the Capitol.
When the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention convened in May of to recommend amendments to the Articles of Confederationone of the first issues they addressed was the plan for representation in Congress. This question was especially contentious, and kept the delegates embroiled in debate and disagreement for over six weeks.
One group of delegates believed that they were not authorized to change the "federal" representational scheme under the Articles of Confederation, according to which the states were equally represented in a unicameral Congress by delegates appointed by the state legislatures.
The question was finally resolved by the Connecticut Compromisewhich resulted in a system of representation that would be "partly national, partly federal," involving a combination of the two kinds of representation. This lesson will focus on the various plans for representation debated during the Constitutional Convention of By examining the views of delegates as recorded in James Madison's Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention ofstudents will understand the arguments of those who supported either the Virginia Plan or New Jersey Plan.
Students will also see why the Connecticut Compromise was crucial for the Convention to fulfill its task of remedying the political flaws of the Articles of Confederation. Why was the question of representation such an important issue to the delegates at the Constitutional Convention of ? Identify key delegates to the Constitutional Convention of and analyze their views concerning representation. Assess how the question of representation affected whether the changes proposed by the Convention would lead to a "national" or a "federal" system.
Examine contemporary issues regarding state and federal representation to determine the degree of change that has occurred over time. In May ofdelegates from the states began assembling in Philadelphia for a Convention to recommend amendments to the Articles of Confederation. From the beginning, however, the central point of contention among delegates was the extent to which the scheme of representation under the Articles should be changed.
According to the Articles of Confederation, the states were united in a "firm league of friendship" under what was understood to be a federal government. Each state legislature selected delegates to a unicameral Congress that is, there was only one legislative branch, unlike the bicameral Congress established later by the Constitution. The states were equally represented in Congress because each state delegation could cast only one vote. Some delegates, including James Madison, believed this arrangement led to many of the problems that the United States faced during the s See Lesson 1 of this unit, " The Road to the Constitutional Convention ".
Madison, therefore, devised what came to be known as the Virginia Plan, which was introduced to the Convention by Edmund Randolph of Virginia on May The Virginia Plan would establish two Houses of Congress: in the first or "lower" House, representatives would be elected directly by the people of each state; representatives in the second or "upper" House would be selected by members of the lower House out of a pool of candidates nominated by the state legislatures.
In both Houses, the number of representatives from each state referred to by the delegates as the "rule of suffrage" would be "proportioned," determined by either the population of each state, or by the amount of taxes each state contributed annually to national funds. The Virginia Plan would establish a national government that represented the people of the United States directly: the people themselves would elect their representatives, and the laws of Congress would apply to them directly rather than to the state governments.
The New Jersey Plan would enlarge some of the powers of Congress—such as the power to raise money though import taxes—but would otherwise leave the scheme of representation unchanged.
On June 16, Paterson argued that his more conservative plan—unlike the Virginia Plan—was within the scope of what the Convention was authorized to do. Hamilton proposed a bicameral Congress in which representatives in the Assembly or lower House would be elected directly by the people, and members of the Senate would be appointed by electors chosen by the people. The state governments would have no role in selecting representatives, and the national government would neither represent nor rely on the state governments in any way.
Hamilton's plan was so radical that it spawned little debate, but it did set the tone for the heated discussions that would follow in the next few weeks. Three issues dominated the debates over the Virginia and New Jersey Plans.
First was the question of a unicameral versus a bicameral Congress. Delegates such as James Wilson of Pennsylvania argued that splitting the legislature into two Houses would allow each to act as a check on the other. Others, such as Paterson, countered that such a check was unnecessary.
The question was finally settled in favor of a bicameral Congress on June The second issue surrounding the question of representation was the mode of election; that is, whether representatives should be elected by the people directly or by the members of the state legislatures. On one side, delegates such as Roger Sherman and Elbridge Gerry believed that the people were not fit to select their representatives.
On the other side, delegates such as George Mason and James Madison argued that direct election to the lower House by the people was necessary to satisfy the "democratic principle. The third and most contentious element of the debate was the question of equal versus proportional representation in Congress, otherwise known as the "rule of suffrage" in the legislature. Some delegates feared that proportional representation would allow the larger states to dominate Congress and pass laws adverse to the interests of the smaller states.Prerogative powers are legal powers held by the c Illustrate By E This contrast of beliefs between the Northern state delegates, and the Southern state delegates founded How did the Constitutional Convention of and the period immediately following it deal with the issue of the debate between those who supported Following the Annapolis Convention, by mid- February seven states agreed to send representatives to Philadelphia and by February 21stCongres The conclusion of the convention should bring me solace but I find that it only brings me distress for the future of our country.
I do not believ It is thus more Discover great essay examples and research papers for your assignments. Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays. No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.
Sign Up. Sign In. Sign Up Sign In. After reading and analyzing the documents in this packet, you will be asked to complete a four-paragraph essay answering the above question. By effectively analyzing the documents, you will have the tools you need to construct an effective compare and contrast type essay.
This document based question packet and essay will be worth 55 points. Rubric will provide a guide for writing the best essay you can. Constitution as something almost sacred. We assume that this great document has always been honored and revered. This is not true. When it was written in and submitted to the states for ratification, it set off months of fierce and often bitter debate. There were, of course, many who welcomed it as a stronger and more effective national government, which could successfully tie the 13 states together into a common nation.
But others were fearful of this proposed powerful new national government. Only a few years earlier they had fought a war against a too powerful, distant central government.
Why should they now erect a new distant central government which could threaten their liberties just as King George and Parliament had? The debate went on in towns and villages across the country for months.As part of our Constitution Day celebration, we host a live chat with schools all across America. But many questions were serious, and many of the same topics were brought up.
Here are the 20 questions kids in middle and high school ask about the Constitution, the Founding Fathers, and the president. Answer: The U. It sets out both the structure of the government, as well many of the rights and freedoms that are protected against government interference. Answer : The New Jersey Plan wanted to give each state equal representation in the new federal government. The Virginia Plan, on the contrary, proposed apportioning representation based on population.
One delegate—George Read—also signed on behalf of another delegate, John Dickinson, who was home sick that day. Fifty-five different delegates had been in Philadelphia over the course of the Convention, but some left early. The average age was 42 years old. The oldest signer was Benjamin Franklin at 81 years old. Can I get any clarification? It is made up of electors drawn from the states and the District of Columbia, based on the number of members of Congress from each state.
Today, most state electors are appointed mainly to simply vote for the winners according to vote totals in the states; however, electors technically do have the legal right to vote for whomever they wish. Washington was elected unanimously, receiving one vote from every elector. He was 42 years old when he became president on the death of William McKinley. John F. Kennedy was the youngest president to be elected, at the age of Donald Trump was the oldest to be elected, at the age of Answer : The tallest president we had was Abraham Lincoln.
Answer : Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to four terms and served 12 years in office. President Washington declined to seek re-election after his second term and future Presidents until Roosevelt did the same. So Roosevelt will always be the longest-serving president—unless we amend the Constitution again. There have been two women who have run for vice president as a major party nominee: Geraldine Ferraro and Sarah Palin.
This decision was somewhat altered by the Secretary of the Treasury to include Alexander Hamilton, who was the first Secretary of the Treasury; Salmon P. Chase, who was Secretary of the Treasury during the Civil War and is credited with promoting our National Banking System; and Benjamin Franklin, who was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.
All three of these statesmen were well known to the American public. Treasury Department records do not reveal the reason that portraits of these particular statesmen were chosen in preference to those of other persons of equal importance and prominence. Answer: It is difficult to amend the Constitution—it has only happened 27 times in the last years.
To have another convention would take years and would be a very complex matter. Most surveys indicate that a majority of people support the current Constitution, but there have been recent calls for a new Article V convention to propose new amendments.This lesson engages students in a study of the Constitution to learn the significance of "Six Big Ideas" contained in it. Students analyze the text of the Constitution in a variety of ways, examine primary sources to identify their relationship to its central ideas and debate the core constitutional principles as they relate to today's political issues.
In order to understand how our government works students must understand the major ideas that underpin it. This lesson asks students to explore those ideas and apply them to current issues. What is the significance of the Six Big Ideas in the Constitution historically and for Americans today? The Six Big Ideas are:. The time needed to complete each step of this lesson is presented in parenthesis at each step. The lesson can be done as a whole or each step can be done separately except Step 4 which should follow Step 3.
To understand the Six Big Ideas which underpin the Constitution students need to be familiar with the text itself. Mapping the text of the Constitution presents the national charter in a way that illustrates the attention the Founders gave to the structure and power of government. Constitution are the foundation of our nation and establish the federal government's structures and branches. By counting the words in each article and calculating the percentage of the whole it represents, students can determine how much of the overall project was dedicated to each structure or power.
Fill out the table on Handout 1 to determine the number of words contained in each Article of the Constitution, and the percentage of the whole document that represents. This can be done easily with a digital copy of the text using the word count feature available in most word processing programs.
Map the Constitution by representing the percentages from the table in a visual form on Handout 1. Using different colors for each of the Articles and the Preamble, color in the squares to represent the percentage of the whole Constitution that is dedicated to each article. Hold a class discussion to analyze the map and address the following questions: Which topics received the most attention in the Constitution?
Does the map suggest hypotheses about the relative importance to the Founders of the powers of the new government? To what extent do the powers of each branch of government displayed in the map match how the federal government works today?
Studying the Founders themselves can aid in understanding the government they created. Many of the Founders knew each other before the Constitutional Convention and were able to draw on their personal relationships when trying to garner a consensus for specific proposals to be included in the Constitution. Students will explore these relationships by creating a Founders' Social Network using Handout 2.
The teacher may assign a Founder to each student or allow the students to choose one. After students complete the profile and likes section on Handout 2, post them on the wall. Students will then browse the other profiles to determine who would likely be "friends" with their assigned Founder, then fill out the Friends section of the handout.
Students will analyze the text of the Constitution to identify specific examples of the Six Big Ideas in action. Provide the list of the Six Big Ideas to the students, direct them to define each term, then discuss with the whole class to check for understanding. Divide the students into six groups with each group assigned a Big Idea. Provide a copy of the Constitution to each group printed or electronic and direct them to examine the text to identify two examples of the assigned Big Idea in action.
Students will fill in Handout 3 with the quote from the Constitution and its location. Students will then rephrase the quote in their own words to hone in on its meaning. There will be multiple correct answers for each Big Idea. Each group will share their examples with the class. Students will apply their understanding of the Big Ideas gained in Step 3 to actual documents which were created or received by the federal government as it was exercising its powers under the Constitution.
Students will act as historians who must consider the source of each document, when it was created and its content to determine how it relates to the Big Ideas. The teacher will list the Six Big Ideas on the board or post them on a wall. Pairs of students will be given a copy of one document from a selected list.Finally, each student will need to click the "submit assignment" button and then link the document from their Google Drive. Click the "submit assignment" button when finished.United States Constitution · Amendments · Bill of Rights · Complete Text + Audio
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Long Description. Cancel Update Criterion. Additional Comments: Cancel Update Comments. Additional Comments:. Rating Score.How were deputies to the Constitutional Convention chosen? They were appointed by the legislatures of the different States. Were there any restrictions as to the number of deputies a State might send?
Which State did not send deputies to the Constitutional Convention? Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Were the other twelve States represented throughout the Constitutional Convention? Two of the deputies from New York left on July 10,and after that Hamilton, the third deputy, when he was in attendance did not attempt to cast the vote of his State.
The New Hampshire deputies did not arrive until July 23, ; so that there never was a vote of more than eleven States. Where and when did the deputies to the Constitutional Convention assemble? The meeting was called for May 14,but a quorum was not present until May About how large was the population of Philadelphia? The census of gave it 28,; including its suburbs, about 42, What was the average age of the deputies to the Constitutional Convention?
About Who were the oldest and youngest members of the Constitutional Convention? How many lawyers were members of the Constitutional Convention?
There were probably 34, out of 55, who had at least made a study of the law. From what classes of society were the members of the Constitutional Convention drawn? In addition to the lawyers, there were soldiers, planters, educators, ministers, physicians, financiers, and merchants.
How many members of the Constitutional Convention had been members of the Continental Congress? Forty, and two others were later members. Were there any members of the Constitutional Convention who never attended any of its meetings? There were nineteen who were never present.
Some of these declined, others merely neglected the duty. Were the members of the Constitutional Convention called "delegates" or "deputies," and is there any distinction between the terms? Some of the States called their representatives "delegates"; some, "deputies"; and some, "commissioners," the terms being often mixed. In the Convention itself they were always referred to as "deputies. The general practice of historians is to describe them as "delegates.
Who was called the "Sage of the Constitutional Convention"? Benjamin Franklin, of Pennsylvania. Who was called the "Father of the Constitution"?