These were created during World War II under the Petroleum Administration for War to help organize the allocation of fuels derived from petroleum products, including gasoline and diesel or "distillate" fuel. Today, these regions are still used for data collection purposes. The Petroleum Administration for War was established in by executive orderand abolished in The districts are now named for the later Petroleum Administration for Defense which existed during the Korean War. It was established by the Defense Production Act ofthen abolished inwith its role taken over by the U.
Department of Interior 's Swipeable tabs ios swift and Gas Division. These were created during World War II to help organize the allocation of fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel.
Due to their location, refineries in the central US have enjoyed cheap domestic tight oil and discounted oil sands production from Canada. Meanwhile, refineries on the East Coast have been forced to buy oil from overseas at higher world prices due to North American pipeline bottlenecks.
Five refineries on the US East Coast have been forced to close sinceand three more were threatened with closure before they sold at discounted prices. Pipelines are the cheapest and safest method of oil transportation in North America. However, due to the lack of pipelines, East Coast refineries must bring in domestic North Dakota Bakken oil and imported Western Canadian oil sands production by rail.
Very little comes from the Canadian oil sands. Most of the refineries can handle only sweet, light crude oil, so even heavy, sour Western Canadian Select would not be a good feedstock. Imports of heavy oil from Western Canada could rise in the next few years via deliveries by rail, but it is unlikely that much oil sands production will be processed there.
In recent years, many of the refiners in PADD 2 added coker units to handle heavier Canadian feedstocks to replace declining domestic oil production. Canadian oil was readily available since Canadian oil pipelines from Alberta to Ontario ran through the US Midwest, and it has almost completely backed out competing sources of imported oil due to its lower cost.
US Midwest refiners have become by far the largest refiners of Canadian oil sands production. Unexpectedly, North Dakota production also increased because of hydraulic fracturing in the Bakken formationmaking ND the second largest US producing state after Texas. Oil production from ND was delivered through the Canadian pipeline system, so the glut of new oil forced feedstock prices to US refineries on the Canadian pipelines down and made them much more profitable than refineries elsewhere in the US or Europe.
The vast majority of the refineries are in Texas and Louisiana. Most of the Gulf Coast refineries have the capacity to process very heavy crude oils from Venezuela and Mexico.
However, exports from those countries has been declining in recent years, and more of Venezuela's exports are going to other countries, notably China. US domestic oil production has been increasing since due to horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in tight oil fields, notably the Eagle Ford Formation of Texas.
Some Gulf Coast refineries have completely replaced imported light and medium oil with new Texas tight oil. Unfortunately, most of it is too light for the Gulf refineries. Much new US tight oil is being exported to Canada for use as oil sands diluent and returning in blends which are a better feedstock for heavy oil refineries. For Canadian oil sands producers this is a chance to back Venezuelan, Mexican, and Arabian heavy oil out of the Gulf Coast market and help achieve North American energy independence.
The main problem has been pipeline capacity. Since Canadian heavy oil and bitumen was much lower in price than heavy oil from other countries, oil companies started buying up and reversing idle pipelines which used to carry imported oil from the Gulf Coast to the Midwest to carry Canadian oil in the other direction. This was more expensive and arguably more hazardous than moving oil by pipeline, but cost-effective for refineries given the lower cost of heavy oil imports from Canada versus other countries.
Refineries in the region have been in a similar position to Midwest refineries, having access to cheap Canadian imports.Governor Sheila Oliver.
Chester Energy and Policy
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Getting Answers. Staying Healthy. Getting Help at Home. Staying Safe. NJ Save. Provider Resources. Contact Us. These plans will cover medically necessary prescription medications under Medicare Part D. However, if a Medicare Part D plan does not pay for a medication because the drug is not on its formulary, PAAD beneficiaries will have to switch to a drug on their Part D plan's formulary, or their doctor will have to request an exception due to medical necessity directly to their Part D plan.
Medicare Advantage participants must add a prescription benefit to their coverage, and PAAD will contribute up to the regional benchmark amount towards the prescription portion of their total premium. Additional Program Information PAAD provides coverage for prescribed legend drugs, insulin and insulin supplies, and needled and syringes for injectable medicines used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
PAAD does not pay for diabetic testing supplies e. If PAAD beneficiaries have health insurance coverage, such as Medicare Part B that pays for diabetic testing supplies a pharmacy must bill that insurance plan.We purchase every product we review with our own funds — we never accept anything from product manufacturers.
Included are apps for the basics like web browsing and streaming video, and you can download thousands of other apps from the App Store to do just about anything else. In fact, there are multiple versions of iPad available, each with its own built-in conveniences. There really is an iPad for everyone.
Read on for everything you need to know to find your ideal iPad, then check out our favorites. The first thing to know about the iPad is that there are four different base models. The iPad Mini has a 7. The iPad features a 9. It comes in three different sizes, all bigger than the original: Will you be using your iPad for work or for personal use? Will you need internet access on your iPad outside of your home?
iPad & Tablets
What size of tablet best fits your lifestyle? The biggest difference between iPad models is the screen size, so picking the right size is pretty important.
If you need a small model you can fit in any bag, an iPad mini might be your best bet; but if you need a giant screen with enough room to get work done, an iPad Pro may be a better choice. So how do the different iPads stack up against one another? It all comes down to a few key specifications. Pay the closest attention to the following:. The A10 chip is adequate, and the A12 is ideal for most users.
All iPads have multiple cameras, so you can use yours to take pictures or for video calls. If you plan on taking a lot of photos or video with your iPad, get one with solid cameras on board.
The Apple Pencil is a game-changer for tablets. It functions as a normal stylusbut includes key conveniences: You can tap a button on it to change pen styles, and it even charges just by being connected to your iPad. Stylus - Apple Pencil 2nd Generation. There are hundreds of iPad cases out there, ranging from super thin sleeves to rugged shells and everything in between. Make sure the one you buy matches the size of iPad you own. When it comes to the iPad, there are plenty of options.
Older iPads have a physical home button at the bottom of the screen that can be used with Touch ID to unlock your iPad with a fingerprint. Newer iPads replace the physical home button with a virtual onscreen one. Instead of using your fingerprint, you can use your face to unlock your iPad with Face ID. While it can sometimes be hard to justify spending more than a grand on a tablet, when it comes to the iPad Pro, the money is definitely worth it.
Use iTunes to create backups for your iPad. The best way to keep your data safe is to use iTunes from a desktop or laptop computer to create backups that can be used to restore your iPad later.
Buy the latest version of the Apple Pencil. Most, but not all, iPads support the Apple Pencil, which lets you write on your iPad the same way you would on paper.PADD Counties. Click on a county below to view details. Caldwell County. Caldwell County, located in the Pennyrile area of the west central part of the state, was established inand named after General John Caldwell.
He later served as Kentucky's second lieutenant governor. The county seat is located at Princeton in the central part of the county. Caldwell County was formed from an area that previously had been in Livingston County.
Lake Beshear, at the edge of the Pennyrile Forest State Park, is on the eastern boundary of the county. Cities Ferdonia Princeton. Christian County. Christian County, one of the earliest of the western Kentucky counties, was formed in and is located in the Pennyrile area.
The county's southern border joins Tennessee. In the northwest part of the county, Lake Beshear and the Pennyrile State Resort Park provide recreational opportunities. The county was created from lands previously part of Logan County, and named after a Virginian, Colonel William Christian, a Revolutionary War officer who settled in Kentucky in Crittenden County. Illinois is directly across the Ohio River that forms the county's northwest boundary.
Marion is the county seat. The county is named for John Jordan Crittenden, a native Kentuckian, who spent more than fifty years in public service at the local, state and national levels.
Cities Marion. Hopkins County. Hopkins County, located in the Pennyrile area of southwestern Kentucky, was formed in from a part of Henderson County.Our editors independently selected these items because we think you will enjoy them and might like them at these prices. If you purchase something through our links, we may earn a commission. Pricing and availability are accurate as of publish time. Apple's newest iPad Pro is here. Complete with an LiDAR scanner and full trackpad support, it appears to be even more of a PC replacement than previous models.
I use Windows on my main computer and a Chromebook for portable work. No matter which one you buy, it can probably handle most actions, including:. You may see the more demanding actions perform better on the higher-cost iPad models, but for the most part any model should work well for general use.
It boasts a super-sharp This is a slower CPU than more expensive models but you likely won't notice the difference. When I bought my current iPad — the 9. The iPad Air, as its name implies, is slightly thinner than the regular iPad. But the real improvement comes in a faster A12 Bionic CPU, more available storage up to GB and extra features like a wide-color, anti-reflective, True Tone display for a more natural-looking image.
At This is the iPad for people looking to replace their computer and thanks to the most powerful processor in an iPad — the A12Z Bionic — and up to 1TB of storage, it will work well for all your digital creations.
Android and Windows tablets can do similar things to an iPad, but the feel of using the device is why I chose an iPad. Android has struggled to get its tablet interface feeling as smooth and usable and many Android apps — from big names like Spotify to various magazines and lots of smaller third-party tools — are similar to phone apps blown up to fit the size of a tablet.
Plus, a lot of apps come out on iOS before reaching other platforms, which can be frustrating if you have to wait for a new game to launch for your Android product. The app interface isn't comparable and I end up spending most of my time in a browser, which just seems silly for the price. When it comes to longevity, I find that iPads last a relatively long time.Mi Gente - SOUNTEC LIVE Edit
Now, Android tablets might not get future updates since Google stopped manufacturing their own Android tablets. In addition to the actual product, I find that there are far more iPad-focused accessories like fold-out keyboard casesthan there are for any given Android tablet.
Android and Windows tablets do have their advantages, of course. Previously, he was the editor-in-chief of Lifehacker and How-To Geek. Follow NBC News. Shopping Should you buy an air purifier? Shopping Microsoft launches xCloud gaming: What to know. Best Buy. Shopping Best Wi-Fi routers at every price point. Whitson Gordon.The new iPadOS pushes your iPad even further, with redesigned apps and widgets, new abilities for Apple Pencil, and more.
In iPadOS 14, you can write in any text field, scratch out a word to delete it, draw precise shapes, and more. You can back up using iCloud or your computer. Setting up your new iPad is quick and easy. And if you already have an iPad, just place it next to your new one to get going even faster. Your iPad has a Multi-Touch display that lets you tap, swipe, pinch, or spread your fingers to perform useful actions.
Use the Files app to browse, search, and organize all of your documents — and keep them updated across devices. Connect your iPad Pro to Magic Keyboard and you can use familiar keys to copy, paste, format, and much more.
When it comes to navigating, you have options. Update to the latest iPadOS then pair your favorite Bluetooth mouse or trackpad for a new iPad experience.
Forgot passcode. Find My iPad.
The iPad is the only tablet worth buying, argues a tech expert
Help charging. Repair options. Get iPadOS Get to know Apple Pencil In iPadOS 14, you can write in any text field, scratch out a word to delete it, draw precise shapes, and more. Find your iPad model. Choose how you want to back up. Start it up Setting up your new iPad is quick and easy. Set up your new iPad.
Get around with gestures Your iPad has a Multi-Touch display that lets you tap, swipe, pinch, or spread your fingers to perform useful actions. Manage your files Use the Files app to browse, search, and organize all of your documents — and keep them updated across devices. Command and control Connect your iPad Pro to Magic Keyboard and you can use familiar keys to copy, paste, format, and much more. Point and click When it comes to navigating, you have options.
Search Support Clear Search.This piece will serve to explain what the PADDs are, where they originated, how they evolved over the years, and how they are relevant today. PADD 1 is referred to as the East Coast region and, because of its size, is further divided into three subdistricts:.
Simply impress those you meet at energy cocktail parties by memorizing what territories are in PADDs 6 and 7. Specifically, the Petroleum Administration for War was established as an independent agency by Executive Order in in order to organize and ration the various oil and petroleum products to ensure the military had all the fuel it needed.
Part of that organization process was the establishment of these five districts as a tool for that goal. The Petroleum Administration for War ended in after the war efforts were over, but these five original districts were quickly reestablished by the successor Petroleum Administration for Defense that was created by Congress in in response to the Korean War. This Administration provided these districts with the name Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts.
These oil distribution efforts were the largest and most intricate such efforts yet, leading to the realization that interstate pipelines would soon become necessary to connect oil refineries with distant U. But once World War II ended, the government determined there was no more need for the Petroleum Administration for War, and gone with the Administration were the districts. Even though the government agency was eliminated, the names and organization of the various PADDs continued to be used ever since.
While the PADDs served an official function and thus had official definitions set out by government agencies during World War II and the Korean War, that is no longer the case today— but that does not mean they are no longer significant.
Further, government agencies have defined PADDs for use within specific regulations. With the government being out of the business rationing oil and petroleum since the end of the Korean War, the PADDs have found new purpose. The same PADDs have survived to allow analysis of data and patterns of crude oil and petroleum product movements within and outside the United States. Using these PADDs, government and industry players are able to ensure they are using the same regional collection of states and shorthand language to analyze and spot trends within regions instead of being confined to looking at the nation as a whole or analyzing on a more state-by-state basis.
Further, the PADDs are separated in a way that makes analysis straightforward. For example, following the crude supply in PADDs 2 and 3 are the most important to crude prices because they contain the largest number of refineries. Heating oil demand is mostly concentrated in PADD 1, making that the region to look at when investigating heating oil prices.
There are plenty of other examples of the usefulness of dealing with oil-related data within PADDs. A common example is to delineate from where different PADDs receive their oil.
For example, with the knowledge that almost half of U. For example, EIA allows you to look at the following:. If you enjoyed this post and you would like to get the newest posts from the Chester Energy and Policy blog delivered straight to your inbox, please consider subscribing today.
If you want to learn more about the various energy-related institutions keeping the industry humming, see this post on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commissionthis post on the Strategic Petroleum Reserveand this post on ARPA-E.
Crash Overview of U. Croft Production Systems. For more quick hits in addition to posts on this blog, follow him on Twitter ChesterEnergy. What are PADDs?