Now that you have read Lesson 1 and have completed the exercises, you should be ready to take the self-assessment quiz. This quiz is designed to help you assess how well you have learned the content of this lesson.
You may refer to the lesson text whenever you are unsure of the answer. Image Description. Return to text. Section Navigation. Self-Assessment Quiz Now that you have read Lesson 1 and have completed the exercises, you should be ready to take the self-assessment quiz. Unless instructed otherwise, choose ALL correct answers for each question. Testing for norovirus is not readily available in any nearby island, and the test takes several days even where available.
Age of passenger Detailed food history what person ate while aboard ship Status as passenger or crew Symptoms When analyzing surveillance data by age, which of the following age groups is preferred? Choose one best answer 1-year age groups 5-year age groups year age groups Depends on the disease A study in which children are randomly assigned to receive either a newly formulated vaccine or the currently available vaccine, and are followed to monitor for side effects and effectiveness of each vaccine, is an example of which type of study?
Experimental Observational Cohort Case-control Clinical trial British investigators conducted a study to compare measles-mumps-rubella MMR vaccine history among 1, children with pervasive development disorder e.
They found no association. This is an example of which type s of study?
Answers to Common Health Questions
Figure 1. Previous Page. Lesson 1 Overview. Related Links. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
Question: Who developed a vaccine against polio? Answer: Jonas Salk invented a vaccine against polio that, after being introduced insaved millions of people from the disease.
Question: What causes the skin disease called shingles? Answer: Viruses can cause skin blisters known as shingles. Question: What causes the skin malady known as acne? Answer: Extra oil production during the teenage years makes many in this age group suffer a skin inflammation known as acne. Question: Who discovered penicillin?
Human Health What is the most prevalent noncontagious disease in the world? The faster you answer, the higher your score. When you're done, try again to beat your best score! Facebook Twitter. Human Health. You finished! View Results Play Again. Quiz Results. Log in to save your scores!
More Quizzes. Browse All Quizzes. Your results. Are you a quizmaster? Share Your Score:. Compare your score. Your Score. Login or Join to track your quiz stats, save your best scores, and compete with the community!This exercise is a series of questions to test your knowledge of public helath—to challenge your assumptions.
In this case, we ask you to consider your essay answer, but we wrote the essay, which you can read by clicking the "answer" button. Going through all the questions will take a while, but remember, this test is not graded. You may come and go as you please, so please do. We invite you to challenge your assumptions on the health of the world. Diabetes AIDS.
The WHO estimates that in InWHO estimated that 3. The WHO estimate for diabetes prevalence worldwide in is For IDF diabetes mortality estimates by country, region, age and gender, click here. Next Question Close answer. The site is for people new to the public health field as well as those who have experience and knowledge but who want to learn more.
Each section serves a different but complimentary purpose, and we invite you to explore. More about this site.Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
What's in the site Notes on using this site Acknowledgements. Skip to Navigation Skip to Content. New York University. Text Size Print Email. Want to learn more about public health? We recommend that you start here. More about this site What's in the site Notes on using this site Acknowledgements. Unless otherwise noted, all content copyright New York University.A: As you may have read, Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease.
Will you require insulin? That all depends on individual factors that includes, among many other factors, weight, exercise, genetics, hormones and beta-cells, those cells that produce insulin in your pancreas. Research shows that managing your diabetes early in the disease process can have big payoffs in later years. Joining a support group for people with diabetes can be helpful in keeping you going in your health quest.
Following up with your health care team regularly and keeping abreast on the new developments in diabetes management can also benefit you. A: Excellent question. To make a long story short: A serving of alcohol is typically not very high in calories, BUT it is metabolized very differently than our food 90 percent in the liverwhich can make weight loss tricky.
For example, a light beer is roughly calories and so is a handful of nuts. In terms of calories, this is not much at all, but in terms of metabolism, they vary significantly, partly because you have fiber, protein, and fat in the nut and virtually none of these in beer. This is why we can't say a calorie equals a calorie. Think of it this way, an empty calorie food or drink is something you can remove from the diet but still maintain optimal physiological function.
Do our bodies need alcohol to survive? These are empty calories because they don't have a purpose. Do we need lean protein to survive? Fresh produce? You get the idea Bogden is a registered clinical dietitian who works in the Department of Nutrition Therapy at Cleveland Clinic.
A: The scientific evidence on the role of diet in autoimmune diseases such as lupus is just becoming available. I am a believer that a plant-based diet is helpful in promoting overall health and decreasing the chemicals that cause inflammation. I advocate a -based diet along with a very low-fat diet. You have to recall that French fries are vegan but they are not exactly healthy.
I think that exercise and healthy diet are extremely important for everyone, but more so for those with autoimmune diseases.
Smith is a rheumatologist in the Department of Rheumatic and Immunological Diseases specializing in lupus, arthritis and general rheumatology. A: Yes.In some instances, the collection of names or identifiable data is both technically and ethically required.
Effective surveillance may require the de-duplication of records that is, avoidance of double-counting, which can lead to overestimates of incidence or prevalence.
Lesson 1: Introduction to Epidemiology
Responsible data collection and sharing practices should ensure the security of the data collected in order to safeguard the privacy and other interests of the individuals and communities concerned.
In particular, sensitive information that raises the risks of stigmatization or discrimination, should be subject to specific and especially rigorous security safeguards. Informed consent is not the norm in public health surveillance. For surveillance to be effective, it needs to have the fullest picture possible of population health.
If individuals are given the choice to opt-out of surveillance, this compromises the quality of data and efforts to limit disease spread. However, as far as possible, participants should be informed about the activity. In exceptional cases, such as when surveillance involves serious risks for participants, they should give prior informed consent. There is an ethical obligation to inform participants of their health related results, so that appropriate follow-up actions such as referral and treatment can be taken.
The WHO Guidelines on the Ethics of Public Health Surveillance highlight the importance of informing consenting individuals of the results of surveillance, and referring them for follow-up in the case of positive results.
The ubiquitous use of personal computers, smartphones, wearable devices, closed-circuit cameras, genetic sequencers, semi-autonomous drones, and other technologies means that we produce a steady stream of digital data that can be useful for informing public health surveillance.
However, they raise a host of ethical concerns. The WHO Guidelines on the Ethics of Public Health Surveillance acknowledge that ethical issues raised by new technologies need to be addressed as the boundaries of surveillance shift.
Although not necessarily a harm in itself, public health surveillance can trigger interventions that infringe on privacy and liberty. For example, surveillance might trigger contract tracing, quarantine, or mandatory vaccination or treatment. But it does mean that those responsible for surveillance need to anticipate the risks of harm in advance, identify groups who are particularly susceptible to increased harms from disease, stigmatization, or discrimination; monitor constantly for harm; do whatever is possible to mitigate harm; and communicate in a sensitive and responsible manner.
Health Topics. Year of the Nurse and the Midwife About Us. Skip to main content. Quiz: The ethics of public health surveillance Take the quiz to check your answers. Yes No In some instances, the collection of names or identifiable data is both technically and ethically required. Read the guidelines.
Interactive Chapter Quizzes
Yes No Informed consent is not the norm in public health surveillance. Yes No There is an ethical obligation to inform participants of their health related results, so that appropriate follow-up actions such as referral and treatment can be taken.
A Wearable devices B Smart phones C Drones D Closed circuit cameras E Reality TV The ubiquitous use of personal computers, smartphones, wearable devices, closed-circuit cameras, genetic sequencers, semi-autonomous drones, and other technologies means that we produce a steady stream of digital data that can be useful for informing public health surveillance. Yes No Although not necessarily a harm in itself, public health surveillance can trigger interventions that infringe on privacy and liberty.
You are here: Ethics and health.Due process requirements must be considered for which of the following activities? Isolation for one with communicable disease. Compulsory medical treatment of person with TB.
Question 2. Upon demonstration of the incapacity of an individual to make a decision, autonomy requires the state to provide for substitute decision consistent with which of the following? The best interests of the community without regards to the goals of the individual. The opinion of the court as to the best interest of the individual, regardless of his or her known wishes.
The known wishes of the individual whether competent or incompetent, or with his or her best interests. Question 3. Despite the fact that some scientists dismiss lay judgment of risk as being irrational,according to Professor Gostin it is rational based on which of the following reasons.
Lay judgments tolerate certain hazards that are voluntarily assumed. They are more likely to be inaccurate. They are more likely to exaggerate or underestimate risk, in some cases related to how much media attention is given to an issue. There has been a decrease in public trust in reports of findings of government- funded research. Question 4. Assume that a public health agency wants to close all schools and businesses dealing with the public for 2 weeks in order to prevent the spread of the latest mutation of HIN1 flu affecting humans.
Question 5. In the US, Federal governments powers are limited to Answer. Enumerated powers of Constitution exclusively. Enumerated and implied powers of Constitution.
Implied powers of Constitution exclusively. Question 6. Which of the following principles of risk assessment would Gostin agree with?
As the probability of harm decreases there is less justification for a regulatory response. Impact on human mortality and morbidity is the only hazard public health regulation should consider.
A person who has been contagious may continue tobe subject to compulsory public health powers even after the period of time he is contagious. The fact that a certain number of lives may be lost is not a consideration.
Question 7. The kind of procedure that an agency must provide to someone who wants to appeal from an agency decision in order to satisfy the requirements of due process depends on which of the following? The nature of interest that is at stake for the individual. The value of procedures as protection against erroneous decision making. The burden to the public health or other agency. Question 8. The law provides that no one shall be incarcerated until there has been a determination by a judge and following a hearing to establish that the person is infected.
It provides for a right of appeal to the state Supreme Court? Which test was used? Intermediate level of review. Question Powers of the states after passage of the US Constitution included.
Which of the following fall under the parens patriae power of the state?Health is "a state characterized by anatomic, physiologic, and psychological integrity; ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to deal with physical, biologic, psychological, and social stress". Test your general knowledge and general awareness on mineral deficiency that leads to various types of diseases.
The deficiency of which of the following group of nutrients affects the skin? Using purgatives on a regular basis is harmful to health. Which deficiency does it cause?
What is the condition known as, in which the body does not get its fair share of nutrients, either from starvation, or as a result of poor absorption :. Night blindness drying of the conjunctiva, dry and scaly skin and loss of hair are some of the symptoms of :.
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